SİNAN SÖYLER NEY ATÖLYESİ
TARİHTE NEY

 
Ney'in Tarihçesi
 
 

Ney: In some Turkish dialects it is called "nai", "nay", "gagri tuiduk" or "karghy tuiduk". It is a wind instrument made of reed reed.  Kaşgarlı Mahmut, in his work entitled Divân-ı Lügati't-Türk, written at the beginning of 11th century, explaining the Turkish culture and language, stated that Ney was used in the "Sagu" ceremonies, that were organized for "Erler", related to death, virtue and pain. "Sagu" ceremonies are also known as "Yug" among Turks. Sagut or Yağut, which were lementations sung in these ceremonies, called today "Ağıt". We can even say "Sagut" or "Yağut" have been brought to the present day as "Avut" when we associate it with the word "Avutmak", which means consoling. Since the sound coming out of Ney is very deep and impressive, we can understand more easily why the Turks blow Ney in these ceremonies.

 

Ney, thanks to Safavid Turkish dynasty and  Great Seljuk Empire, which ruled in Azerbaijan and Iran, has also spread seriously in Iran and took the name "nâ" or "nay" (reed) in Persian.

Ney, which has spread among Arabs by the influence of Mamluks, Ayyubids, Seljuks and Ottomans, is also named with the word "mizmâr" (meaning windpipe), which is used for almost all Arabic wind instruments.

In Turkey, Azerbaijan and Crimea it has always referred as Ney.

Ney spread to Balkans by Ottoman influence; and called "Ney" by Bosnian, Croatian, Greek, Macedonian and Albanians, "Nai" by Serbs and Bulgarians, and "Nayu" in Romania.

 

The most primitive form of the ney instrument was first used in history in the Sumerian society. It is thought to have been used since 5000 years.  The oldest ney found is what remains from 3000-2800 BC is what is exhibited in the Philadelphia University Museum in America today. It is thought that the instrument was  used in religious ceremonies in those times.

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Kaşgarlı Mahmut, 11. yüzyıl başında yazdığı Divân-ı Lügati't-Türk adlı Türk kültür ve dilini anlatan eserinde, "Sagu" denilen, "Erler" (kahraman, yiğit kişiler) için düzenlenen, ölüm, erdem ve acıları anlatan törenlerde Ney kullanıldığını aktarmıştır. Türkler'de "Sagu" törenleri "Yuğ" diye de bilinir. Bu törenlerde söylenen Sagut veya Yuğut adlı dörtlüklerden oluşan mersiyelere günün Türkçesinde "Ağıt" diyoruz. Hatta teselli etmek manasına gelen Avutmak kelimesiyle ilintilendirince "Savutmak" ve "Yavutmak" kelimelerinin "Avutmak" olarak günümüze taşındığını söyleyebiliriz. Ney'den çıkan ses gayet etkileyici olduğundan Türklerin bu törenlerde neden Ney üflediğini  anlayabiliriz.


Ney, Azerbaycan ve İran'da hüküm sürmüş Safevi Türk hanedanlığı ve Büyük Selçuklu hükümdarlığı sayesinde İran’da da ciddi biçimde yayılmış olup Farsça "" veya "Nay" (kamış) adını almıştır. Yani Anadolu, Balkanlar, Orta Doğu ve Kuzey Afrika'da Ney olarak isimlendirdiğimiz enstrüman Orta AsyaKuzey ve Doğu Türkistan'dan gelip batı topraklarına ulaşması sırasındaki yolculuğunda İran'dan geçerken adını Farsça almış bir Türk çalgısıdır.
Memlük, Eyyubi, Selçuklu ve Osmanlı etkisiyle Arap toplumunda da yaygın hale gelen Ney, bu adı dışında Arapça üflemeli çalgıların hemen hepsi için kullanılan "Mizmâr" sözcüğü, (nefes borusu, ses organı anlamında) ile de adlandırılmıştır. Türkiye, KıbrısAzerbaycanBatı Trakya ve  Kırım Türkçesi'nde ise her zaman Ney olarak anılmıştır. Osmanlı etkisi ile Balkanlar'a kadar yayılan ve kullanilan Ney; Boşnak, Hırvat, Yunan, Makedon ve Arnavutlar'da "Ney", Sırplar ve Bulgarlar'da "Nai", Romanya’da ise "Nayu" olarak adlandırılır.
 

Ney enstrümanının atası sayılabilecek en ilkel halinin tarihte ilk kez Sami ya da Ari olmayan ve nereden geldikleri hala belli olmayan Sümer toplumunda M.Ö. 5000 yıllarından itibaren kullanıldığı sanılmaktadır ve Kuzay Irak'ta bulunan en eski ney, M.Ö. 3000-2800 yıllarından kalan bugün Amerika'da Philadelphia Üniversitesi Müzesi'nde sergilenen neydir. Çalgının o dönemlerde de genellikle dinsel törenlerde kullanıldığı sanılmaktadır.​​ Bunun yanında Ney, Sibirya'dan Balkanlara kadar Tüm Türklerde görülen bir Türk çalgısı haline gelmiştir.


Tasavvuf'ta Ney
 
 

Ney has become a symbol of Sufi music. Instead of playing for a musical instrument, the term "blowing" is used for Ney. Blowing here has a figurative meaning. It takes its source from the fact that in Islam, Allah breathed into him when he created man. Another factor that enables one to be affected by this metaphor is; It is the sound of "Hû" when blowing the ney, just like "Tü" sounds when playing the flute and "Ü" sounds for the side flute. Hu means "he" in Arabic and is often uttered glorifying Allah.

As in other Turkish states from the Seljuk period, especially in the Ottoman period, in Tekke and Dergah where everyone was a regular according to their own disposition, thanks to the rosary, dhikr or semah performed in the written field, a Tekke Literature was formed in Turkish Music, accompanied by instruments. The meşks in the rosary, dhikr and semah rites have created an attitude of Takke, and thanks to the progress made in the field of Sufism with the accumulation of centuries, Sufi Music was born alongside Sufi Literature. The ney, on the other hand, has become the main instrument of Sufi Music with the effect of being an instrument used in religious ceremonies since the first periods of its use. For this reason, Ney; Although it is accepted as an ordinary instrument in other societies, it has gained an otherworldly identity in Turkish societies and societies that have been heavily influenced by Turks in terms of religion and culture, and has been associated with religion and mysticism.

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Günümüzde Ney
 
 

Today, "Ney" is known as Turkish instrument. Translated as English Turkish Flute and German Türkische Flöte, Ney is known in almost all world languages with its Turkish flute equivalents.  

Ney is a primitive instrument… Therefore, it is not possible to situate and describe it in a single theory like flute, clarinet and other later systematized instruments. For this reason, Ney is learned completely and correctly only by working one-on-one with Ney masters through meşk.

 

Like all other musical instruments, the Ney has evolved. Turkish Neys have been revised in the last century. Kutb-i Nayi Niyazı Sayın is currently 94 years old and has revised his Ney instrument with a pitch shifting system. The current Ney pitch system and measurements belong to Niyazi Sayın.

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